Ectopic pregnancy is a type of pregnancy that occurs when the fertilized egg attaches anywhere on the body on the outside of the inside of the uterus (endometrium). Ectopic pregnancy occurs with a probability of 1 in 50. Almost all types of ectopic pregnancy occur in the tube. After fertilization is in the inner part of the tube, it divides and multiplies within 1 week, on the other hand it starts to move into the uterus. If the resulting embryo does not progress into the uterus and cling to the tube or to another place outside the uterus, an ectopic pregnancy occurs.
Ectopic Pregnancy Symptoms
Ectopic pregnancy may not have any signs or signs during the initial phase. In other cases, the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may be the same as pregnancy (absent menstruation, tenderness in the breasts, nausea etc.). If you have done a pregnancy test, the result will be positive. However, ectopic pregnancy will not be able to continue normally. Abdominal or pelvic pain and mild vaginal bleeding are the first signs of ectopic pregnancy. If the blood comes from the fallopian tubes, it is possible to feel shoulder pain or difficulty in bowel movements. (Depending on where the blood is accumulated or which nerves are stretched) Severe vaginal bleeding is rare unless ectopic pregnancy is experienced in the pelvis. If the fallopian tubes are torn, heavy bleeding may occur in the abdomen, followed by drowsiness, fainting, and shock.
Causes of Ectopic Pregnancy
- Partial obstruction in the tube due to infection or inflammation,
- Scarring the scar tissue caused by a previously infected infection,
- Adherence due to previous surgical operations,
- Tube that is longer than usual.
Those at Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy
- Women at high risk of ectopic pregnancy include:
- Being between the ages of 35 and 45,
- Having a previous pregnancy condition,
- Those who undergo surgery in the abdominal and groin areas,
- PID condition (pelvic inflammatory disease),
- Those who have had many abortions,
- Those who become pregnant after the tube is attached or when the IUD is present,
- Those with endometriosis problems,
- Those who receive infertility treatment.
Although it gives the same findings as in normal pregnancy, the following findings are seen in ectopic pregnancy:
- Pain in the style of sharp stabbing, the frequency of which can vary. Often in the groin, sometimes in the form of shoulder and abdominal pain (bleeding into the abdomen can affect the diaphragm, causing pain in the shoulder),
- More or less menstrual bleeding than normal menstruation,
- Tremors, fainting and weakness,
- Findings about the intestines,
- In case of sharp pain and heavy bleeding, the emergency room should be consulted immediately. Because it can be life threatening.
Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy
The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is made by ultrasound, which is carried out together with the examination. Beta-hCG measurement is very important. Generally, the beta-hCG level is less than expected. In addition, low progesterone indicates that pregnancy is not normal.
Ectopic Pregnancy Treatment
Ectopic pregnancy treatment methods are:
- Medical Treatment: Methotrexate is generally used in drug treatment. The drug provides absorption by preventing the growth of pregnancy tissue. Drug treatment can be tried in ectopic pregnancies that are detected early and bleeding has not started.
- Surgical Treatment: Ectopic pregnancy tissue is taken as laparoscopic or open surgery. If there is rupture due to ectopic pregnancy and there is too much bleeding, emergency surgery should be tried. The beta-hCG level decreases after treatment. If it does not fall, it means that there is still pregnancy tissue. Beta-hCG level should be followed until it is zero. The likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy increases again after ectopic pregnancy. If the tubes are not damaged after drug treatment or surgery, the chances of a normal pregnancy are higher.