What is a Miscarriage?
Miscarriage is meant that pregnancy ends before 24 weeks and the baby is lost. If miscarriage occurs in the first 3 months, it is called early miscarriage and it is a very common situation. 10-20% of pregnancies result in early miscarriage. The majority of the early miscarriage status occurs because the baby’s chromosomes are abnormal. Experiencing 3 or more miscarriage is called recurrent miscarriage. 1 in 100 women may experience recurrent miscarriage. Late miscarriage is the miscarriage situation after 3 months. Sometimes recurrent and late miscarriage causes can be found. In others, no reason can be found. Most couples have a good chance of a successful pregnancy in the future, especially if the tests are normal. There are many factors that can cause recurrent and late miscarriage.
What is Recurrent Miscarriage?
Repeated miscarriages are called 3 or more miscarriages. It is a very sad situation. Recurrent miscarriages occur in one in every hundred women (1%) trying to have children. This is only about three times the expected rate of luck, so for some women there should be a specific cause of their loss. However, there is no underlying cause for others; In these, recurrent miscarriages depend only on luck (accidental). When calculating the number of recurrent miscarriages, only pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound or pathology report are taken into account.
What are the Miscarriage Symptoms?
- Bleeding is the most important symptom (brown or bright red)
- Vaginal discharge and spots (pinkish-red mucus)
- Pain in the abdominal area
- Fever and weakness
- Nausea and vomiting,
- Back pain is among the other symptoms of miscarriage
- The coexistence of pain and bleeding increases the likelihood of miscarriage.
These bleeding and spotting occur naturally in 1 out of every 4 women. For this reason, if you see stains or blood in the first 3 months of pregnancy, this does not mean that you are 100% miscarriage. To be sure, you should see your doctor immediately. Pain in the abdominal region may be a symptom of miscarriage. These pains usually appear after discharge or bleeding occurs. With pain, cramps can occur. Abdominal pain can be prolonged, mild or sharp, spread to the back or hip area. If bleeding and pain are seen together, it is very likely to experience miscarriage.
What are the Causes of Miscarriage?
Sometimes the cause of recurrent and late miscarriage can be found. In others, no reason can be found. Most couples have a good chance of a successful pregnancy in the future, especially if the tests are normal. There are many factors that can cause recurrent and late miscarriage. The risk of miscarriage increases with increasing age. If the woman is more than 40 years old, pregnancy is more than half likely to result in miscarriage. Having a male age can also increase the risk of miscarriage. Antibodies are substances produced in our blood to fight infections. Some people produce antibodies that react to the body’s own tissues; this is called an immune response to itself and this is what happens in antiphospholipid syndrome. Being overweight increases the risk of miscarriage. Smoking and excess caffeine (more than 3 cups of coffee per day) can also increase your risk of miscarriage. Excess alcohol is known to be harmful to the developing baby and alcohol consumption of 5 units or more per week may increase the risk of miscarriage. With every miscarriage, the chance of miscarriage increases slightly in the next pregnancy. A woman who has had three miscarriages in a row has a 4 chance of 10 miscarriage again. This means that 6 out of 10 women (60%) with the same condition will have a baby next time.
Miscarriage treatment methods are:
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Treatment
When antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent miscarriages or late miscarriages are treated with low dose aspirin and heparin needles, the chances of having a baby increase. The chance of pregnant women with this condition to have a successful pregnancy without treatment is only 1 in 10 (10%). If you are treated with low dose aspirin tablets and heparin needles in the early period of pregnancy, the chances of live birth can increase up to 7 (70%) in 10. In those with antiphospholipid syndrome (pregnancy poisoning), there is an increased risk of pregnancy complications such as a baby’s growth problem and premature birth. In order to treat such problems that may arise, pregnancy should be carefully followed.
Those who have a hereditary tendency to clot in the blood (thrombophilia) and have a miscarriage between 12-24 weeks are treated with heparin needles. It has not yet been shown that heparin treatment increases the chance of a successful pregnancy in early miscarriage (before 12 weeks).
Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities
If there is an abnormality in the male or female in the chromosome test made from blood called karyotyping, the geneticist may be consulted. It is called genetic counseling to explain the miscarriage and what can be done in subsequent pregnancies. Genetic counseling can help you decide what you want to do in the future.
Cervical Looseness Treatment
If cervical looseness is present, vaginal ultrasound may indicate whether there is a possibility of miscarriage. If pregnancy continues, birth will generally be less painful because the cervix has already begun to open before water comes. A suture can be inserted into the cervix to keep the cervix closed and long when the cervix is loose.
Treatment of Uterine Structure Abnormalities
The curtain in the uterus can be corrected by hysteroscopy. There is nothing that can be done surgically for unicornuate or didelfic uterus. The probability of miscarriage in the septal uterus is about 45%. 85% of the patients give birth after hysteroscopy. Treatment of the arcuate uterus is controversial, however the treatment of the septal uterus by hysteroscopy is recommended.